Damage Stability

A damage stability criterion varies from ship to ship and the requirement for the same is given in SOLAS chapter II-1. It may be single compartment flooding, multi compartment flooding, engine room flooding etc.

Under all the criteria as applicable, vessel margin line should not be submerged after the damage. Margin line is an imaginary line drawn 76mm below the free board deck.


          Basic Pre-Departure Checks

  • Longitudinal Strength – Load Line
  • Intact Stability – Load Line
  • Damage Stability
  • Oil Tankers – Marpol Annex 1, reg 25
  • Gas Tankers – IGC Code, Chapter 2
  • Chemical Tankers – IBC Code, Chapter 2


  • Approved Stability Information

– Intact loading Conditions

– Damage Calculations

  • Certification

-Oil Tankers – IOPP Certificate and Form B

-Gas Tankers – Certificate of Fitness

-Chemical Tankers – Certificate of Fitness


IGC and IBC Certificates of Fitness:

That the ship must be loaded:

.1 in accordance with the loading conditions provided in the approved loading manual, stamped and dated ……………………………………………………. and signed by a responsible officer of the Administration, or of an organization recognized by the Administration; or

.2 in accordance with the loading limitations appended to this Certificate.

Where it is required to load the ship other than in accordance with the above instruction, then the necessary calculations to justify the proposed loading conditions should be communicated to the certifying Administration who may authorize in writing the adoption of the proposed loading condition.

IACS Resolutions • UR L5 “Onboard Computers for Stability Calculations”; Typical Stability Approval at Build


  • Intact stability information booklet

–Contains sample intact loading conditions.

–On approval, these intact loading conditions are themselves deemed to be “approved” for use.

  • Damage stability appraisal

–Usually a separate submission

–Demonstrates only that the approved intact loading conditions will survive the extent of damage required by the applicable Convention or Code, and achieve the minimum residual stability standard.

In this approach damage is applied directly to the approved intact loading conditions on a case by case basis. The results, and the approval, is therefore conditional upon the assumption that the following parameters remain unchanged in the loaded vessel, otherwise damage results may be adversely affected :

  • Cargo SG
  • Draught and or Trim
  • Empty/Part Filled Cargo Tanks
  • Cargo or Ballast Distribution
  • Use of Deck Tanks


Various Damage Conditions:

5 7 4 3 2 6 1



damage stability book

This example of a damage stability appraisal for a coastal tanker shows the typical scale of peak residual GZ values for each loading condition in the final column.



For all loading conditions, the initial metacentric height and the righting lever curve should be corrected for the effect of free surfaces of liquids in tanks. Superstructures and deckhouses not regarded as enclosed can be taken into account in stability calculations up to the angle at which their openings are flooded.

Full compliance with residual stability criteria must be achieved before any such point becomes immersed. When determining the righting lever (GZ) of the residual stability curve, the constant displacement (lost buoyancy) method of calculation should be used .


Operational documentation: loading and stability information booklet (stability booklet), Damage Control Plan; and Damage Control Booklet 2).


damage stability



Direct calculation onboard (Stability software)

Stability software installed onboard should cover all stability requirements (intact and damage) applicable to the ship.

a) Type 2: Checking intact and damage stability on basis of a KG/GM limit curve(s) or previously approved loading conditions; and

b) Type 3: Checking intact and damage stability by direct application of pre-programmed damage cases for each loading condition, including capability for calculation of intermediate damage stages.

The software should be approved by the classification society. The software is not a substitute for the approved stability documentation, but used as a supplement to facilitate stability calculations. Sufficient damages, taking into account lesser damages, and variation of draft, cargo density, tank loading patterns and extents of tank filling should be performed to ensure that for any possible loading condition the most onerous damages have been examined according to relevant stability criteria.


The verification of KG/GM limit curves should be conducted without any free surface correction. The actual loading condition uses the free surface correction when comparing actual and allowable KG values. It is to be noted that any change of filling level, draught, trim, cargo density might have a major influence to the results of a damage case; therefore the following items should be considered carefully for the calculation of the KG/GM limit curves:

a) Intact and damage stability criteria applicable to the vessel;

b) The maximum required damage extent and lesser extents of damage which provide the most severe damage cases;

c) Draught range of the vessel (up to tropical freeboard if required);

d) Trim range of the vessel (see paragraph 6.6);

e) Full and empty cargo tanks;

f) Partially filled cargo tanks (consideration of increments as necessary);

g) Minimum tank fillings in tonnes if required;

General documents and supporting information

.1 lines plan, plotted or numerically;

.2 hydrostatic data and cross curves of stability (including drawing of the buoyant hull);

.3 definition of watertight compartments with moulded volumes, centres of gravity and permeability;

.4 layout plan (watertight integrity plan) for the watertight compartments with all internal and external opening points including their connected sub-compartments, and particulars used in measuring the spaces, such as general arrangement plan and tank plan;

.5 Stability Booklet/Loading Manual including at least fully loaded homogeneous condition at summer load line draught (departure and arrival) and other intended operational conditions;

.6 coordinates of opening points with their level of tightness (e.g., weathertight, unprotected) 2), including reference to the compartment that the opening is connected to.

.7 watertight door location;

.8 cross and down flooding devices and the calculations thereof according to resolution MSC.245(83) with information about diameter, valves, pipe lengths and coordinates of inlet/outlet. Cross/down flooding should not be considered for the purpose of achieving compliance with the stability criteria (see also paragraph 9.2);

.9 pipes in damaged area when the breaching of these pipes results in progressive flooding (see paragraph 10.1);

.10 damage extents and definition of damage cases; and

.11 any initial conditions or restrictions which have been assumed in the derivation of critical KG or GM data, and which must therefore be met in service

Damage Control Plan

For passenger and dry cargo ships for which a damage stability calculation is to be performed a Damage Control Plan is to be prepared, containing the following information if applicable and partly beyond the requirements of MSC/ Circ. 919:

✓ ship’s name ✓ Shipyard and hull no. ✓ Class-register-no, Character of Classification and damage stability marking ✓ principal dimensions ✓ permissible number of persons to be carried ✓ subdivision index R ✓ main and local watertight subdivision ✓ numbering of compartments ✓ frame numbers and spacing ✓ penetration lines (e.g. B/5 or 760 mm-line) in each deck view ✓ simplified instructions in case of damage in order to prevent progressive flooding ✓ emergency exits ✓ watertight door location with control stations ✓ position of weathertight and unprotected opening points ✓ pipes in damaged area when the destruction of these pipes results in progressive flooding ✓ valves at bulkheads penetrations ✓ cross- and down flooding arrangement ✓ permanent solid or liquid ballast or min./max. q

Damage Control Booklet

In addition to the aforementioned, booklets shall be made available according to MSC/Circ. 434 and MSC/Circ. 919 containing the following information:

✓ introduction and description of this manual ✓ principal dimensions and main data ✓ stability limiting values (VCG/GM limit curve) ✓ ship’s watertight arrangement ✓ position of watertight doors and hatches with ✓ information about operational instructions ✓ position of all weathertight and unprotected openings ✓ piping arrangement incl. available pumps and ✓ valve arrangement ✓ cross- and downflooding arrangement ✓ summary of the damage stability calculation with description of the analysis concept and damage stability criteria ✓ information of the damage control locations ✓ position of sounding devices

The main purpose of such a document is to stipulate appropriate action in case of damage. The chapter for damage control should include information such as:

• workflow of damage scenario • closing of watertight and weathertight openings • check of the extent of damage and sounding of compartments • use of pumps • use of loading computer • liquid transfer operations • information to external authorities and emergency response group The booklet should be supplemented with copies of the general arrangement plan, tank capacity plan and piping diagram as well as information about used abbreviations and the definition of the co-ordinate system.



ETAS (Emergency Technical Assistance Service)

ETAS is an emergency service which assists ship owners and their representatives ensure ship safety and prevent or minimize the effects of marine pollution in the event of a serious ship casualty such as stranding, collision or explosion. Working closely with the owner and salvage team, the ETAS team is often the brains behind the brawn, making sure that the salvage operations don’t make the situation worse, or minimizing any necessary negative impact.

Preparing for a crisis starts with registering for the ETAS service. At this time all the relevant data of the ships registered for the PrimeShip-ETAS service are stored in a database for easy retrieval in order to be able compute the damage stability and the impact of damage on for example, longitudinal strength in case of an emergency. Technical advice can then be provided as to the best course of action that may be taken to secure the safety of the vessel. In the case of an emergency, the ship/client should contact the ETAS team as soon as possible after the incident. The team takes the information provided by the ship and uses it together with the data previously registered in the database to make the necessary computations. Technical advice is then provided concerning transfer or off-loading of cargo, fuel or ballast if necessary, as well as any necessary temporary repairs so that the Master and crew of the damaged ship can respond to the emergency as quickly and effectively as possible.

An ETAS team of highly trained specialists including experienced surveyors, naval architects, master mariners and chief engineers stand ready to respond to any client request 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, as time is often a critical factor in crisis management.

ETAS complies with the relevant requirements set forth in the “Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan” required by the amended Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 as well as the “Vessel Response Plan” required for oil tankers entering any U.S. port as stipulated in the provisions of the US Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90).







Aims: The aims of this course are to prepare a student to appear for the examinations of Certificate of Competency as Master of a Foreign going Ship 1.2.

Objectives: This course covers the contents of Appendix M-II/3A of META Manual Vol. II.


  1. Indian Merchant Shipping Act

a)Registration of ships: The certificate of registry and its legal significance.

b) Engagement, discharge and management of crew. Manning scales and certification. Contracts of employment, wages and other remuneration, advances, allotments, payment into bank accounts. Descriptions, deceased seamen, engagement of substitutes, repatriation, assisting and repatriating Indian seamen, distressed abroad.

c) The official log book and the law relating to entries. Offences relating to misconduct, to endangering ship and against persons on board. Discipline and treatment of disciplinary offences. Civil liability for certain offences. Trade disputes involving seamen. The official log book entries and records in freeboard draft and allowances.

d) Crew accommodation. Hygiene of the ship and welfare of the crew. Outline knowledge of the regulations relating to medical stores, inspection and reports. Fresh water and provisions. Procedures in cases of infectious disease, illness or accidents. Maritime declarations of health. Port health requirements. international agreements and measures to prevent the spread of disease by shipping.

e) The safety of the ship, crew and passengers.

Assistance of vessels in distress and salvage. Master’s duties in the case of collision or any other accident. Master’s role in collecting evidence after an accident. Lodging protests etc. inquiries and investigation.

f) The law relating to the reporting of ice, derelict, tropical revolving storms and other dangers to navigation.

g) Outline knowledge of the rules made under the Merchant Shipping Act.


2. Documentation: 

Certificates and other documents required to be carried on Passenger ships, tankers, Gas carriers, Chemical carriers, Car/Truck carriers, Bulk carriers. Procedures to obtain the above mentioned certificates and the period of their validity. Other Trading certificates (Suez and Panama Canal certificate, CFR) that are required to be carried on board

3. Custom house procedures: inward and outward clearance, Immigration clearance, quarantine clearance (FAL Convention).

 4. Methods of dealing with stowaways, hijacking of ships, armed robbery /piracy, smuggling and other custom offences, drug and alcohol policy and its enforcement.

5. Master- Pilot relationship: Exchange of information, responsibilities. Compulsory and optional pilotage. Bridge Team Management while under pilotage, legal implications if an incident occurs when under pilotage.

 6. Economics of sea transport theory of international trade, general structure of shipping industry relationship between ship—owner, agent, steVedore, charterer, shipper and broker. Detailed knowledge of voyage estimates including cargo calculations involving deadweight, load line zones, consumables and constants taking into account various charges, receipts and establishing economic viability.

7. A general knowledge of shipping practice and documents With particular reference to charter parties and its Main clauses, bills of lading and its Main clauses and mates receipts for various types of ships and trades including tanker practice, meaning of the terms used in chartering practice such as AFRA, WORLDSCALE, INCOTERMS .An understanding of the main clauses in a contract of affreightment including freight, deviation, always afloat, ice, lay days, demurrage and dispatch including calculations involving lay days, charter party, etc. The law relating to the carriage of cargo and ship-owners’, liabilities and responsibilities. Protests, cargo surveys, certificates of seaworthiness. Hague rules, Hague – Visby rules, Hamburg rules, Rotterdam Rules, COGSA, Multimodal Transport Act. Handling of claims and disputes related to Charter parties.

8. Outline knowledge of the expressed and implied conditions and statutory terms contained in a contract of marine insurance. Institute clauses. An understanding of principles and practice of the terms; particular average, general average. Procedure at a port of refuge. Lloyd’s agents. Average adjusters. P & I clubs, LOF 2000, LOF 2011, Scopic clause. Warranties, CLC, Fund convention, York~Antwerp rules.

9. International institutions: IMO, ILO, WHO, ISF, IACS, BlMCO, lCS, OCIMF, SlGTTO, INTERTANKO, INTERCARGO, WTO, lMCA, IFSMA, WMU, [ML] and classification societies.

10. Latest changes in national and international maritime legislation pertaining to SOLAS, MARPOL, Load line and STCW.

11. Control procedures: Classification surveys, Flag State Control, Port State Control, Charterer’s vetting inspections, inspections by port terminal authorities, Condition surveys. Port State Control: Working and targeting by various MOUs; “Clear grounds” to conduct detailed inspection; identification of sub standard ships; “Detention” of ships. Common deficiencies observed as reported by the various MOUS annually.

12. Principles and practice of modern ship management – ISPS Code, ISM Code, methods to prevent human errors on ship, Human Resource Development.

13. Casualty investigation Code (Guidelines on fair treatment of seafarers in event of a maritime accident). Criminalisation of seafarers: Seafarers Rights under a Casualty investigation. Case Studies. Reporting procedures for Incidents. Writing Reports.

14. Musters and drills, distress/urgency/safety messages. Avoidance of False distress alerts and action in case of false distress alert.Search and Rescue, steps to be taken when disabled & in distress, assisting a ship or aircraft in distress. IAMSAR.

15. Place of refuge procedures. Wreck, Salvage and their legal implications.

16. Lighterage operations, Ocean Towing. Duties and responsibilities of Towing & Towed vessel, Communications and exchange of information between towing and towed vessel, Emergency Towing arrangements; Maritime Assistance Service on Indian coast (when applicable).

17. Emergency Response Procedures: Fire in Port”& at Sea, grounding, collision, collision mats, Pollution, Flooding, Engine failure, Listing, Beaching, Steering failure, refloating of vessel. Man-overboard, Helicopter Rescue Operation; Leakages and spills of dangerous cargo; Rescue of victims from enclosed spaces; Rescue of Survivors from another vessel or sea .

18. Case Studies: (Recent casualties such as MSC Chitra and Khalijia 3, M. V. Tosa, Hebei Spirit and Samsung crane barge, Herald of Free Enterprise, Cosco Busan)

19. Anchoring & Berthing under the effect of tide / wind in shallow / deep waters, use of Anchors, squat, interaction between ships / shore, transverse Thrust & turning the ship short round, pivot point, dragging / dredging anchors; Different types of tugs and use/limitation of each; Berthing with/ without tugs under various conditions of wind, current and tide. Effectiveness of bow and stern thrusters.

 20. Manoeuvering and handling of ship in all conditions; Ship’s maneuvering characteristics; Wheelhouse poster; Emergency stopping manoeuvres, crash stop, rudder cycling, Synchronous rolling, Parametric rolling, wind healing criteria for high freeboard ships; Picking up Pilot; Manoeuvering in and near Traffic Separation Schemes and VTS areas; STS Operations.

 21. Environmental Protection: Marpol Annexes / to Vl, SOPEP/SMPEP, Vessel Response Plan, oil record book. Ballast Water Management, OPA 90 & NPDES. (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System of USA.)

22. Operating in ice: Basic ship handling in ice, sighting of ice / open water, working through ice, navigation in ice. High latitude Navigation —_ procedures & precaution. Polar Code. effects of ice accretion on stability of vessel

23. Safety Management: Case studies on Risk Assessment; Managing Risk on board; Briefings /debriefings and too/box meetings; Case studies for Safety on deck in rough weather; On—board Training; incidents related to Enclosed Space Entry Procedures; Hot Work Procedures;

24. Damage Stability Criteria and Damage stability booklet Proper assessment of damage stability condition – using ETAS (Emergency Technical Assistance Service). provided ‘by classification societies. An understanding of the information required to be passed on for assessment of Damage Stability.

25. Weather Routeing and Voyage Planning; Procedures for 4 selection of an optimum route; Various weather routeing services available to shipping; Vessel Performance curves, hindcast charts;

26. Various ship plans used in Cargo Loading / discharging, dry 4 docking, Grounding, Dry-docking both intact and with damage; Preparation of Repair Specifications

27. COLREGS, related case studies and Interaction with participants .

28. Ship Recycling Convention: Hazardous Materials inventory,  Green Passport.

29. Global Warming and climate change, Greenhouse effect,  Carbon credit, Kyoto protocol,

30. Dangerous Goods: Recent amendments to IMDG code