CSS Code Overview

CSS Code Overview

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Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing (CSS Code)

 

THE PURPOSE OF THE CODE IS TO PROMOTE SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CARGOES BY:

  1. MAKING SHIPOWNERS AND SHIP OPERATORS AWARE OF THE NEED TO ENSURE THAT THE SHIP IS SUITABLE FOR ITS INTENDED CARGO AND VOYAGE,
  2. PROVIDING ADVICE TO ENSURE THAT THE SHIP IS EQUIPPED WITH PROPER CARGO SECURING MEANS,
  3. PROVIDING GENERAL ADVICE ON THE PROPER STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CARGOES TO MINIMIZE RISKS TO THE SHIP AND PERSONNEL,
  4. PROVIDING SPECIFIC ADVICE ON THE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CARGOES WHICH ARE KNOWN TO CREATE DIFFICULTIES AND HAZARDS WITH REGARD TO THEIR STOWAGE AND SECURING,
  5. ADVICE ON ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN HEAVY SEA CONDITION,
  6. ADVISING OF ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN TO REMEDY THE EFFECTS OF CARGO SHIFTING.

 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING

IMPROPER STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CARGO IS POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS TO CARGOES AS WELL AS TO THE SHIP ITSELF.

  1. HENCE ALL CARGOES MUST BE STOWED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE SHIP ANND PERSONS ARE NOT PUT TO RISK,
  2. PROPER PLANNING, EXECUTION AND SUPERVISION ARE REQUIRED FOR THE SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CARGOES,
  3. PERSONS RESPONSIBLE FOR PLANNING AND SUPERVISION OF CARGOES MUST HAVE SOUND PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE AND BE FAMILIAR WITH THE CONTENTS OF THE CARGO SECURING MANUAL AND ITS APPLICATION,
  4. THE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CARGOES MUST BE DONE TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE MOST SEVERE WEATHER CONDITIONS EXPECTED FROM AVAILABLE DATA AND PAST EXPERIENCE ON THE VOYAGE,
  5. SHIP HANDLING DECISIONS BY THE MASTER REGARDING COURSE AND SPEED IN BAD WEATHER SHOULD TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE TYPE AND STOWAGE POSITION OF THE CARGO AND SECURING ARRANGEMENTS.

 

GENERAL PRACTICE FOR SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING

  1. CARGO INFORMATION: BEFORE ACCEPTING A CARGO FOR SHIPMENT, THE SHIP OWNER OR SHIP OPERATOR MUST ENSURE THAT:

     

    1. THE CARGO IS SUITABLE FOR THE SHIP,
    2. THE SHIP IS SUITABLE FOR THE CARGO,
    3. THE CARGO IS COMPATIBLE WITH OTHER CARGOES ONBOARD OR INTENDED TO BE CARRIED OR WILL BE SUITABLY SEGREGATED,
    4. THE CARGO CAN BE SAFELY STOWED AND SECURED ONBOARD UNDER ALL EXPECTED CONDITIONS DURING THE INTENDED VOYAGE
  2. DIMENSIONS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CARGOES: A HIGH CENTRE OF GRAVITY AND A SMALL BASE WILL CAUSE THE CARGO TO TOPPLE OVER. SOME CARGOES HAVE A TENDENCY TO SETTLE IN PACKAGES, OR COMPACT AND DEFORM, CAUSING A SLACKENING OF THEIR LASHING. THE CARGO, CTU, VEHICLE OR TRAILER MUST BE IN SUITABLE CONDITION FOR TRANSPORT BY SEA AND IT MUST BE PROPERLY SECURED IN OR ON THE UNIT OR VEHICLE.
  3. FRICTION: SLIDING AND SHIFTING OF CARGO MAY RESULT DUE TO INSUFFICIENT FRICTION. OIL, GREASE ETC SHOULD NOT BE PRESENT BETWEEN THE CARGO AND DECK. FOR CARGOES WITH LOW FRICTION COEFFICIENTS, USE SHOULD BE MADE OF RUBBER MATS, DUNNAGE AND WOOD BOARDS. THE LASHING MUST LEAD DOWNWARDS TO THE BASE OF THE CARGO TO PREVENT IT FROM LIFTING WHICH WILL REDUCE THE FRICTION.
  4. SECURE EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS: CARGO SECURING EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE

     

    1. SUFFICIENT IN QUANTITY,
    2. SUITABLE FOR THE PURPOSE AS PER THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE CARGO SECURING MANUAL,
    3. OF ADEQUATE STRENGTH,
    4. EASY TO USE,
    5. WELL MAINTAINED.
  5. SHIPBOARD SUPERVISION: IMPROPER STOWAGE AND SECURING CAN BE AVOIDED BY PROPER SUPERVISION AND INSPECTIONS BY SHIPBOARD PERSONNEL AT ALL STAGES OF LOADING OPERATION. CARGO AND ITS SECURING SHOULD BE REGULARLY INSPECTED AND ATTENDED DURING THE VOYAGE AND ENTRIES TO BE MADE IN THE LOGBOOK.
  6. STRUCTURAL STRENGTH, STABILITY AND SHIPHANDLING: CARGO AND ITS WEIGHT SHOULD BE SO DISTRIBUTED SO NOT TO EXCEED THE LOAD DENSITY OF THE ASSOCIATED DECK OR ADVERSELY AFFECT THE STRUCTURAL STRENGTH OF THE SHIP. STOWAGE AND SECURING SHOULD BE SUCH AS TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO HATCH COVERS OR SHIPSIDE AND CONSEQUENT LOSS OF WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY. THE GM OF THE SHOULD BE SUITABLE. SHIPHANDLING DECISIONS MUST TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE SHIP, ITS STABILITY, THE GEGRAPHICAL AREA OF THE VOYAGE, ITS DURATION AND WEATHER CONDITIONS.

 

ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN HEAVY WEATHER

THE VOYAGE MUST BE CAREFULLY PLANNED TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE LATEST WEATHER INFORMATION SO AS TO AVOID AREAS OF SEVERE WEATHER AND SEA CONDITIONS AS FAR AS POSSIBLE AND PRACTICABLE.

EXCESSIVE ACCELERATIONS DUE TO SHIP MOTIONS MUST BE AVOIDED BY A COMBINATION OF

  1. COURSE AND/OR SPEED ALTERATIONS,
  2. HEAVING TO,
  3. EARLY AVOIDANCE OF AREAS OF BAD WEATHER AND SEA CONDITIONS,
  4. BALLASTING OR DEBALLASTING THE SHIP TO IMPROVE HER BEHAVIOUR TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE ACTUAL STABILITY,
  5. TAKING SHELTER IN THE LEE OF LAND OR A PORT OF REFUGE.

 

ACTIONS TO TAKE IF CARGO HAS SHIFTED

THE FOLLOWING ACTIONS MAY BE CONSIDERED WHEN CARGO HAS SHIFTED:

  1. ALTERATION OF COURSE TO REDUCE ACCELERATIONS,
  2. REDUCTIONS OF SPEED TO REDUCE ACCELERATIONS AND VIBRATIONS,
  3. MONITORING THE INTEGRITY OF THE SHIP,
  4. RESTOWING OR SECURING THE CARGO,
  5. INCREASING THE FRICTION,
  6. DIVERTING THE ROUTE TO SEEK SHELTER OR TO SEEK IMPROVED WEATHER AND SEA CONDITIONS.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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