General Power Distribution System Of a Ship

 

Power distribution system
Power distribution system

A conceptual layout of a ship’s distribution system that adopts a ‘radial’ or ‘branching’ methodology is depicted in picture. Note that the shore supply circuit is connected to the emergency switchboard but this is only for the convenience of cable-laying. Often the shore-supply circuit is controlled from the main switchboard.

The circuit breakers and switches are the means of controlling the flow of electric current. Fuses and relays (not shown in the diagram) protect the distribution system from the damaging effects of large fault currents. The electrical load is divided into ‘essential’ and ‘non-essential’ services.

Essential services are those required for safety of personnel and for the safe navigation and propulsion of the ship. They include certain supplies to navigational aids, machinery spaces, control stations and steering gear.

The essential services may be supplied directly from the main switchboard or via section or distribution boards; however most essential services are fed via the emergency switchboard.

Notes on Bulkheads and Watertight Doors

BULKHEAD DECK: IS THE UPPERMOST DECK UPTO WHICH THE TRANSVERSE WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS ARE CARRIED.

MARGIN LINE: IS AN IMAGINARY LINE DRAWN 76MM BELOW THE UPPERMOST SURFACE OF THE BULKHEAD DECK.

PERMEABILITY: IS THE PERCENTAGE OF SPACE WHICH CAN BE OCCUPIED BY WATER TILL THE MARGING LINE, IF THE SPACE EXTENDS ABOVE THE MARGIN LINE.

WEATHERTIGHT: MEANS THAT IN ANY SEA CONDITION WATER WILL NOT PENETRATE INTO THE SHIP.

 

TYPES OF BULKHEADS:

  1. WATERTIGHT: SUBDIVIDE THE SHIPS INTO VARIOUS COMPARTMENTS AND THEIR NUMBER IS DICTATED BY CLASSFICATION SOCIETY REGULATIONS.
  2. NON WATER TIGHT: FORM THE BOUNDRIES OF TANKS USED FOR CARRIAGE OF LIQUID CARGO.
  3. OIL TIGHT: ARE ANY OTHER BULKHEADS SUCH AS, ENGINE ROOM CASINGS, ACCOMODATION PARTITIONS, STORES COMPARTMENTS ETC.

 

FUNCTIONS OF BULKHEADS:

  1. AS STRENGTH MEMBERS THEY GIVE STRENGTH TO THE HULL, THEY RESIST THE HULL FROM DEFORMING,
  2. HELP IN SPREADING HULL STRESSES OVER A LARGE AREA,
  3. DIVIDE THE VESSEL IN SMALL COMPARTMENTS, SO AS TO PREVENT PROGRESSIVE FLOODING AND ULTIMATE FOUNDERING OF THE VESSEL IN CASE OF FLOODING/COLLISION/GROUNDING.
  4. IN LIQUID CARRIERS THEY DIVIDE THE VESSEL INTO TANKS AND THUS REDUCE THE FREE SURFACE EFFECT,
  5. REDUCE / PREVENT DAMAGE CAUSED BY SLOSHING OF THE LIQUIDS IN THE TANKS,
  6. THEY ALSO PREVENT SPREADING OF FIRE, THEY ARE SPECIALLY DESIGNED TO WITHSTAND HIGH TEMPERATURES.

 

CONSTRUCTION OF WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS:

  1. FORMED OF SEVERAL STRAKES OF PLATING,
  2. WELDED TO THE SHELL DECK AND TANK TOP,
  3. STRAKES ARE WELDED HORIZONTALLY AND STIFFENED VERTICALLY,
  4. STRENGTH INCREASES TOWARDS THE BASE BY INCREASING THE THICKNESS OF THE STRAKES AT THE BASE,
  5. THE COLLISION BULKHEAD IS 12% THICKER THAN OTHER WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS,
  6. THE AFTER PEAK BULKHEAD IS ALSO THICKER TO REDUCE VIBRATIONS,
  7. THE STIFFENERS ARE GENERALLY VERTICAL BULB PLATES SPACED 760MM APART, IN CASE OF COLLISION BULKHEADS AND OIL TIGHT BULKHEADS IT IS SPACED 610MM APART,
  8. IT SHOULD BE OF SUFFICIENT STRENGTH TO BE CAPABLE OF REMAINING WATERTIGHT WITH A HEAD OF WATER UPTO THE TOP OF THE BULKHEAD,
  9. IT MUST EXTEND UPTO THE BULKHEAD DECK IN ONE PLANE WITHOUT ANY RECESS AS FAR AS POSSIBLE AND PRACTICABLE. ANY RECESS MUST COMPLY WITH THE APPLICABLE SUBDIVISION REQUIREMENT AS PER SOLAS,
  10. THE NUMBER OF PENETRATIONS IN A WATER TIGHT BULKHEAD MUST BE MINIMISED, ANY PENETRATIONS MUST BE AS INBOARD AND AS HIGH AS PRACTICABLE AND BE WATERTIGHT,
  11. SLUICE VALVES ARE NOT PERMITTED IN WATER TIGHT BULKHEADS.

 

LOCATION OF WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS:

  1. COLLISION BULKHEAD IN THE FRONT END,
  2. A AFTER PEAK BULKHEAD,
  3. WATER TIGHT BULKHEAD ON EITHER SIDE OF THE MACHINERY SPACE,,
  4. IF THE VESSEL IS LARGE, ADDITIONAL BULKHEADS ARE REQUIRED TO PROVIDE GREATER STRENGTH AND TO INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF SUB-DIVISIONS,
  5. PASSENGER SHIPS HAVE TO COMPLY WITH SOLAS FOR THE NUMBER AND SPACING OF WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS WHICH IS A STATUTORY REQUIREMENT.

 

TESTING OF WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS:

  1. THOROUGH INSPECTION OF WATER BULKHEAD SHALL BE CARRIED OUT,
  2. HOSE TEST SHALL BE CARRIED OUT AT THE MOST ADVANCED STAGE OF FITTING UP OF THE SHIP,
  3. TESTING MAIN COMPARTMENTS WITH WATER IS NOT COMPULSORY,
  4. IF TESTING NOT CARRIED OUT BY FILLING WATER, HOSE TEST SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT WHERE PRACTICABLE,
  5. IF HOSE TEST NOT PRACTICABLE DUE TO DAMAGE TO MACHINERY OR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IT IS REPLACED BY CAREFUL VISUAL EXAMINATION SUPPORTED BY MEANS SUCH AS DYE PENETRATION TEST OR ULTRASONIC LEAK TEST,
  6. FORE PEAK, DB TANK INCLUDING DUCT KEEL AND INNER SKINS SHALL BE TESTED BY FILLING UP WITH WATER,
  7. TANKS INTENDED TO HOLD LIQUIDS SHALL BE TESTED FOR TIGHTNESS WITH WATER TO A HEAD UP TO DEEPEST SUB-DIVISION LOAD LINE,

 

COLLISION BULKHEAD

  1. EVERY SHIP SHALL BE FITTED WITH A COLLISION BULKHEAD IN THE FORWARD UPTO THE FREEBOARD DECK, AT A DISTANCE OF 5 % OF THE LENGTH OR 10 MTRS (WHICHEVER IS LESS) FROM THE FORWARD PERPENDICULAR,
  2. WHERE THERE IS A BULBOUS BOW OR ANY OTHER STRUCTURE EXTENDING FORWARD OF THE FORWARD PERPENDICULAR, THE ABOVE DISTANCE SHALL BE MEASURED FROM A POSITION:

     

    1. AT THE MIDLENGTH OF SUCH EXTENSION, OR
    2. AT A DISTANCE OF 1.5 % OF THE SHIP’S LENGTH FORWARD OF THE F.P., OR
    3. AT A DISTANCE OF 3 MTRS FORWARD OF THE FORWARD PENDICULAR,

WHICHEVER FROM THE ABOVE 3 IS AFT.

  1. THE COLLISION BULKHEAD MAY HAVE RECESS OR STEPS, PROVIDED THEY TO COMPLY WITH RULE (1) AND (2) ABOVE. PIPES PIERCING SUCH BULKHEADS SHALL BE FITTED WITH VALVES WHICH ARE OPERABLE FROM ABOVE THE FREEBOARD DECK AND THE VALVE CHEST SHALL BE SECURED TO THE BULKHEAD IN THE FOREPEAK. THE VALVE MAY BE FITTED AFT OF THE COLLISION BULKHEAD WHERE SUCH VALVE IS EASILY ACCESSIBLE UNDER ALL SERVICE CONDITIONS, BUT THE SPACE SHALL NOT BE A CARGO SPACE. NO DOORS, MANHOLE, OR ANY OTHER OPENING SHALL BE FITTED IN THE COLLISION BULKHEAD.
  2. IN EVERY CARGO SHIP PROVIDED WITH A LONG SUPERSTRUCTURE IN THE FORWARD, THE COLLISION BULKHEAD SHALL BE EXTENDED WEATHERTIGHT UPTO THE DECK IMMEDIATELY ABOVE THE FREEBOARD DECK. THE EXTENSION SHALL BE WITHIN THE LIMITS SPECIFIED IN (1) AND (2) ABOVE.
  3. IN EVERY CARGO SHIP PROVIDED WITH A BOW DOOR OR SLOPING LOADING RAMP FORMING PART OF THE EXTENSION OF THE COLLISION BULKHEAD ABOVE THE FREEBOARD DECK, SHALL BE WATERTIGHT AND THE PART OF THE RAMP WHICH EXTENDS 2.3 MTRS ABOVE THE FREEBOARD DECK MAY EXTENDS FORWARD OF THE LIMITS SPECIFIED IN (1) AND (2) ABOVE.
  4. THE NUMBER OF OPENING IN THE EXTENSION TO THE COLLISION BULKHEAD ABOVE THE FREEBOARD DECK SHALL BE CAPABLE OF BEING CLOSED WATERTIGHT AND SHALL BE RESTRICTED TO MINIMUM, COMPATIBLE WITH THE DESIGN AND NORMAL OPERATION OF THE SHIP.

 

WATERTIGHT DOORS

 

OPENING ARE NOT ALLOWED IN WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS BUT WHEN IT IS NECESSARY TO HAVE AN OPENING IT IS IN THE FORM OF A WATERTIGHT DOOR. WHERE AN OPENING IS CUT IN THE FORM OF A WATERTIGHT DOOR, CARE MUST BE TAKEN TO MAINTAIN THE STRENGTH OF THE BULKHEAD. THE OPENING IS TO BE FRAMED AND REINFORCED. IF THE VERTICAL SPACING BETWEEN STIFFENERS IS INCREASED TO ACCOMMODATE THE DOOR OPENING, THE SCANTLINGS OF THE STIFFENERS ON THE EITHER SIDE IS INCREASED TO GIVE AN EQUIVALENT STRENGTH TO THAT OF AN UNPIERCED BULKHEAD.

THESE DOORS ARE MADE OF MILD STEEL OR CASTE AND ARE EITHER VERTICAL SLIDING OR HORIZONTAL SLIDING TYPE AND CAPABLE OF BEING OPERABLE UPTO A LIST OF 30 ON EITHER SIDE. THESE SHOULD BE CAPABLE OF OPERATION FROM THE VICINITY OF THE DOOR AS WELL AS FROM A REMOTE LOCATION. POSITION INDICATORS SHOULD BE PROVIDED NEAR THE DOOR AS WELL AS AT ALL REMOTE OPERATING POSITIONS. THERE SHOULD BE AN AUDIBLE ALARM, DISTINCT FROM ALL OTHER ALARMS IN THE VICINITY, WHICH WILL SOUND WHEN THE DOOR IS BEING REMOTELY OPERATED. REMOTE OPERATION CAN BE IN THE FORM OF A VERTICAL THREADED SHAFT GOING UPTO THE DECK OR CAN BE HYDRAULICALLY OPERATED BY MOTOR AS WELL AS A HANDPUMP AT REMOTE LOCATION AND ALSO NEAR THE DOOR. DOORS WHICH ARE NORMALLY CLOSED AT SEA BUT ARE NOT PROVIDED WITH REMOTE OPERATION SHALL BE MARKED “TO BE KEPT CLOSED AT SEA” ON BOTH SIDES OF THE DOOR. DOORS WHICH ARE TO BE PERMANENTLY KEPT CLOSED AT SEA SHOULD BE MARKED “NOT TO BE OPENED AT SEA”.

 

BOW DOOR

  1. THE OUTER RAMP SECTION AND THE OUTER BOW DOOR ASSEMBLY ARE MOUNTED ON INDEPENDENT HYDRAULICALLY OPERATED FRAMES,
  2. FIRST THE BOW DOOR IS OPENED, THEN THE OUTER RAMP FRAME IS UNFOLDED, THEN FINALLY THE COLLISION BULKHEAD DOOR OPENS AND SITS ON THE RAMP FRAME AND COMPLETED THE RAMP ASSEMBLY,
  3. THE RAMP FRAME IS LOCATED FORWARD OF THE COLLISION BULKHEAD DOOR,
  4. INTERLOCKING OF VARIOUS PARTS PREVENTS ACCIDENTAL / OUT OF SEQUENCE OPENING, i.e. FIRST THE BOW DOOR WILL OPEN, THEN THE RAMP FRAME AND FINALLY THE COLLISION BULKHEAD DOOR.
  5. WHEN CLOSED THE DOOR IS CLEATED BY HYDRAULICALLY OPERATED WEDGES AROUND THE ENTIRE OPENING, IN ADDITION STRONG LOCKING DEVICES ARE POSITIONED IN THE LOWER PART OF THE DOOR SECTION AND THE HULL,
  6. FULL WATER TIGHTNESS IS ENSURED BY A SINGLE LIP RUBBER SEAL MOUNTED AROUND THE DOOR OPENING.

 

CONSTRUCTION AND INITIAL TESTS OF WATERTIGHT DOORS AS PER SOLAS

  1. IN PASSENGER SHIPS THE FRAME OF VERTICAL WATERTIGHT DOORS SHALL HAVE NO GROOVE AT THE BOTTOM IN WHICH DIRT MIGHT LODGE AND PREVENT THE DOOR CLOSING PROPERLY.
  2. IN PASSENGER SHIPS THE WATERTIGHT DOOR SHALL BE TESTED BY WATER PRESSURE TO A HEAD UP TO THE BULKHEAD DECK OR FREEBOARD DECK.
  3. IN CARGO SHIPS A HOSE TEST IS ALSO ACCEPTED.

CSS Code Overview

Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing (CSS Code)

 

THE PURPOSE OF THE CODE IS TO PROMOTE SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CARGOES BY:

  1. MAKING SHIPOWNERS AND SHIP OPERATORS AWARE OF THE NEED TO ENSURE THAT THE SHIP IS SUITABLE FOR ITS INTENDED CARGO AND VOYAGE,
  2. PROVIDING ADVICE TO ENSURE THAT THE SHIP IS EQUIPPED WITH PROPER CARGO SECURING MEANS,
  3. PROVIDING GENERAL ADVICE ON THE PROPER STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CARGOES TO MINIMIZE RISKS TO THE SHIP AND PERSONNEL,
  4. PROVIDING SPECIFIC ADVICE ON THE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CARGOES WHICH ARE KNOWN TO CREATE DIFFICULTIES AND HAZARDS WITH REGARD TO THEIR STOWAGE AND SECURING,
  5. ADVICE ON ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN HEAVY SEA CONDITION,
  6. ADVISING OF ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN TO REMEDY THE EFFECTS OF CARGO SHIFTING.

 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING

IMPROPER STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CARGO IS POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS TO CARGOES AS WELL AS TO THE SHIP ITSELF.

  1. HENCE ALL CARGOES MUST BE STOWED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE SHIP ANND PERSONS ARE NOT PUT TO RISK,
  2. PROPER PLANNING, EXECUTION AND SUPERVISION ARE REQUIRED FOR THE SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CARGOES,
  3. PERSONS RESPONSIBLE FOR PLANNING AND SUPERVISION OF CARGOES MUST HAVE SOUND PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE AND BE FAMILIAR WITH THE CONTENTS OF THE CARGO SECURING MANUAL AND ITS APPLICATION,
  4. THE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CARGOES MUST BE DONE TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE MOST SEVERE WEATHER CONDITIONS EXPECTED FROM AVAILABLE DATA AND PAST EXPERIENCE ON THE VOYAGE,
  5. SHIP HANDLING DECISIONS BY THE MASTER REGARDING COURSE AND SPEED IN BAD WEATHER SHOULD TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE TYPE AND STOWAGE POSITION OF THE CARGO AND SECURING ARRANGEMENTS.

 

GENERAL PRACTICE FOR SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING

  1. CARGO INFORMATION: BEFORE ACCEPTING A CARGO FOR SHIPMENT, THE SHIP OWNER OR SHIP OPERATOR MUST ENSURE THAT:

     

    1. THE CARGO IS SUITABLE FOR THE SHIP,
    2. THE SHIP IS SUITABLE FOR THE CARGO,
    3. THE CARGO IS COMPATIBLE WITH OTHER CARGOES ONBOARD OR INTENDED TO BE CARRIED OR WILL BE SUITABLY SEGREGATED,
    4. THE CARGO CAN BE SAFELY STOWED AND SECURED ONBOARD UNDER ALL EXPECTED CONDITIONS DURING THE INTENDED VOYAGE
  2. DIMENSIONS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CARGOES: A HIGH CENTRE OF GRAVITY AND A SMALL BASE WILL CAUSE THE CARGO TO TOPPLE OVER. SOME CARGOES HAVE A TENDENCY TO SETTLE IN PACKAGES, OR COMPACT AND DEFORM, CAUSING A SLACKENING OF THEIR LASHING. THE CARGO, CTU, VEHICLE OR TRAILER MUST BE IN SUITABLE CONDITION FOR TRANSPORT BY SEA AND IT MUST BE PROPERLY SECURED IN OR ON THE UNIT OR VEHICLE.
  3. FRICTION: SLIDING AND SHIFTING OF CARGO MAY RESULT DUE TO INSUFFICIENT FRICTION. OIL, GREASE ETC SHOULD NOT BE PRESENT BETWEEN THE CARGO AND DECK. FOR CARGOES WITH LOW FRICTION COEFFICIENTS, USE SHOULD BE MADE OF RUBBER MATS, DUNNAGE AND WOOD BOARDS. THE LASHING MUST LEAD DOWNWARDS TO THE BASE OF THE CARGO TO PREVENT IT FROM LIFTING WHICH WILL REDUCE THE FRICTION.
  4. SECURE EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS: CARGO SECURING EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE

     

    1. SUFFICIENT IN QUANTITY,
    2. SUITABLE FOR THE PURPOSE AS PER THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE CARGO SECURING MANUAL,
    3. OF ADEQUATE STRENGTH,
    4. EASY TO USE,
    5. WELL MAINTAINED.
  5. SHIPBOARD SUPERVISION: IMPROPER STOWAGE AND SECURING CAN BE AVOIDED BY PROPER SUPERVISION AND INSPECTIONS BY SHIPBOARD PERSONNEL AT ALL STAGES OF LOADING OPERATION. CARGO AND ITS SECURING SHOULD BE REGULARLY INSPECTED AND ATTENDED DURING THE VOYAGE AND ENTRIES TO BE MADE IN THE LOGBOOK.
  6. STRUCTURAL STRENGTH, STABILITY AND SHIPHANDLING: CARGO AND ITS WEIGHT SHOULD BE SO DISTRIBUTED SO NOT TO EXCEED THE LOAD DENSITY OF THE ASSOCIATED DECK OR ADVERSELY AFFECT THE STRUCTURAL STRENGTH OF THE SHIP. STOWAGE AND SECURING SHOULD BE SUCH AS TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO HATCH COVERS OR SHIPSIDE AND CONSEQUENT LOSS OF WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY. THE GM OF THE SHOULD BE SUITABLE. SHIPHANDLING DECISIONS MUST TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE SHIP, ITS STABILITY, THE GEGRAPHICAL AREA OF THE VOYAGE, ITS DURATION AND WEATHER CONDITIONS.

 

ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN HEAVY WEATHER

THE VOYAGE MUST BE CAREFULLY PLANNED TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE LATEST WEATHER INFORMATION SO AS TO AVOID AREAS OF SEVERE WEATHER AND SEA CONDITIONS AS FAR AS POSSIBLE AND PRACTICABLE.

EXCESSIVE ACCELERATIONS DUE TO SHIP MOTIONS MUST BE AVOIDED BY A COMBINATION OF

  1. COURSE AND/OR SPEED ALTERATIONS,
  2. HEAVING TO,
  3. EARLY AVOIDANCE OF AREAS OF BAD WEATHER AND SEA CONDITIONS,
  4. BALLASTING OR DEBALLASTING THE SHIP TO IMPROVE HER BEHAVIOUR TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE ACTUAL STABILITY,
  5. TAKING SHELTER IN THE LEE OF LAND OR A PORT OF REFUGE.

 

ACTIONS TO TAKE IF CARGO HAS SHIFTED

THE FOLLOWING ACTIONS MAY BE CONSIDERED WHEN CARGO HAS SHIFTED:

  1. ALTERATION OF COURSE TO REDUCE ACCELERATIONS,
  2. REDUCTIONS OF SPEED TO REDUCE ACCELERATIONS AND VIBRATIONS,
  3. MONITORING THE INTEGRITY OF THE SHIP,
  4. RESTOWING OR SECURING THE CARGO,
  5. INCREASING THE FRICTION,
  6. DIVERTING THE ROUTE TO SEEK SHELTER OR TO SEEK IMPROVED WEATHER AND SEA CONDITIONS.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MARPOL ANNEX III Overview

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ANNEX III

REGULATIONS FOR THE PREVENTION OF POLLUTION

BY HARMFUL SUBSTANCES

CARRIED BY SEA IN PACKAGED FORM

 

APPLICATION (Reg. 1)

 

  • It applies to all ships carrying harmful substances in packaged form, including empty packagings which have been previously used for the carriage of such substances.
  • It does not apply to ship’s stores and equipment.
  • Harmful substances are identified as marine pollutants in the IMDG Code and also in accordance with the guidelines given in the Appendix.
  • “Packaged form” is a type of containment specified in the IMDG Code.
  • Each State shall issue detailed requirements for packing, marking, labelling, documentation, stowage, limitations of quantity and exceptions.

 

PACKING (Reg. 2)

 

Packages shall be adequate to minimise the hazard to the marine environment.

 

MARKING AND LABELLING (Reg. 3)

 

  • Packages shall be marked and labelled with the following :
  • Correct technical name of the substance.
  • An indication that it is a marine pollutant.
  • United Nations number.

 

  • Markings and labels shall be identifiable on packages which survive at least 3 months immersion in sea.
  • Packages containing small quantities of such substances may be exempted from the above requirements as stated in the IMDG Code.

 

DOCUMENTS (Reg. 4)

 

  • All documents shall use the correct technical name of the substance alongwith the words “Marine Pollutant”.
  • Shipper’s document shall include a certificate stating that the shipment offered is properly packaged, marked and labelled/placard as appropriate, and in proper condition for carriage.
  • The ship shall prepare a special list, manifest or detailed stowage plan stating the location of the harmful substances on board. A copy of this document shall be retained by the owner till the substances are unloaded, and another copy shall be given to the Port State authority before departure. This shall be done even at intermediate ports where partial loading or unloading of such substances is carried out.  (Interpretation 1)
  • The above document may be combined with the document for dangerous goods required by the SOLAS convention. If this is done then a clear distinction shall be made between the dangerous goods and harmful substances.

 

STOWAGE (Reg. 5)

 

These substances shall be properly stowed and secured to minimise the hazard to the environment without impairing safety of the ship and persons.

 

QUANTITY LIMITATIONS (Reg. 6)

 

Certain substances may be prohibited, or the quantity may be limited, for carriage on board any ship, depending on the following considerations:

  • Scientific and technical data.
  • Size, construction and equipment of the ship.
  • Packaging and inherent nature of the substances.

 

DISCHARGE OVERBOARD (Reg. 7)

 

  • Jettisoning of such substances is prohibited except for safety of the ship or saving life. 
  • Washing of leakages overboard shall be regulated, without impairing the safety of the ship and persons, depending on the physical, chemical and biological properties of the substances.

 

PORT STATE CONTROL (Reg. 8)

 

  • Ship is subject to Port State inspection if there are clear grounds for believing that the Master or crew are not familiar with essential shipboard procedures relating to pollution prevention.
  • In such a case the ship shall not sail until it complies with requirements of this Annex.
  • Port State control procedures prescribed in Article 5 of this Convention and Res. A.787(19) as amended by A.882(21) shall apply.  

 

Garbage Management Plan and Garbage Record Book

GARBAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN 

 

  • Every ship of GT ≥ 400 tons, and every ship certified to carry ≥ 15 persons, shall carry this plan which shall be prepared in accordance with Res. MEPC.71(38) and MEPC/Circ.317.
  • It shall be written in the working language of the crew.
  • It shall contain the following details :
  • Procedures for collecting, storing, processing and disposing garbage.
  • Use of the equipment on board.
  • Name of the designated person in charge of carrying out the plan.

 

shipmates-GRB

 

GARBAGE RECORD BOOK

 

  • Every ship of GT ≥ 400 tons, and every ship certified to carry ≥ 15 persons, when engaged on international voyages, and every fixed and floating platform, shall be provided with a GRB in accordance with format prescribed in the appendix.
  • Each discharge or incineration operation shall be recorded in it and signed by the officer in charge. Each completed page shall be signed by the Master.
  • Entries shall be in the official language of Flag State and also in English, French or Spanish.
  • Entry shall include the following items : (Refer appendix)
  • Date and time.
  • Position of the ship. (Start and stop positions when discharging cargo residues)
  • Description of the garbage.
  • Amount (m3) incinerated, discharged at sea, to reception facility or to other ships.
  • Name of the port, facility or ship to which the garbage was discharged.
  • Amount escaped or accidentally lost and the reasons for the same.

 

  • Master should obtain a receipt from the reception facility or ship receiving the garbage.
  • GRB and the receipt shall be preserved on board for 2 years after the last entry.
  • Flag State may exempt the following from having the GRB :
  • Ship certified to carry ≥ 15 persons and engaged on voyages of duration ≤ 1 hour.
  • Fixed or floating platform.

 

  • Competent authority of any State may inspect the GRB and obtain a certified copy of it from the Master, without unduly delaying the ship.

 

CONDITION ASSESSMENT SCHEME (CAS)

80007

 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

 

  • It applies to tankers of categories 2 and 3 of 15 years and over after the date of its delivery.
  • It has been developed on the basis of Annex B of the Guidelines on the Enhanced Programme of Inspections, which are carried out in accordance with Chapter XI-1 of the SOLAS convention and IMO Res. A.744(18) as amended by Res. 2 of the 1997 SOLAS conference, by MSC.49(66) and by MSC.105(73).
  • It shall be updated as and when enhanced programme of inspections is amended.
  • It is meant to verify that structural condition of a single-hull tanker is acceptable and will continue to be acceptable during the subsequent period of operation of the tanker.
  • It applies to surveys of the hull structure in way of cargo tanks, pump rooms, cofferdams, pipe tunnels, void spaces within the cargo tanks, and all ballast tanks.
  • The first CAS survey shall be carried out alongwith the enhanced programme of inspections, concurrent with the intermediate or renewal survey after 05-04-2005 or when the ship reaches 15 years of age, whichever occurs later. Thereafter it shall be carried out at intervals of £ 5 ½ years.
  • It shall be carried out by the Flag State or by RO.

 

PROCEDURE OF SURVEY

 

  • Ship owner shall notify the Flag State and RO of its intention to proceed with the CAS.
  • RO shall issue a Survey Planning Questionnaire to the owner in the prescribed format.
  • The owner shall complete the questionnaire and send it to the RO and the Flag State.
  • Owner shall prepare a Survey Plan for the CAS, in co-operation with the RO and the Flag State, and submit it to both of them.
  • The plan shall be developed using the Model Survey Plan set out in the appendix to this Scheme, after taking into account the overall status of the tanker and various survey documents, as stated in this Scheme.
  • Extent of the survey shall be in accordance with this Scheme and the enhanced programme of inspections, including close-up surveys and thickness measurements.
  • The survey shall be conducted safely in accordance with the mandatory requirements stated in the appendix to this Scheme.
  • At least 2 qualified exclusive surveyors of the RO, who have been trained and are experienced in carrying out intermediate or renewal surveys, shall carry out this survey. They shall also supervise the taking of the thickness measurement.
  • To ensure safe and efficient execution of the survey, a meeting shall be held between the surveyors, owner’s representative, thickness measurement firm operator and Master.
  • All recommendations and conditions of class shall be rectified to the satisfaction of the RO.
  • Surveyor/s shall prepare the CAS Survey Report, as stated in this Scheme, and forward it to RO headquarters for review, alongwith photographs, sketches, scantlings, etc.
  • After review, the RO shall prepare the CAS Final Report, as stated in this Scheme, and submit it to the Flag State.
  • The RO shall issue an Interim Statement of Compliance to the tanker in the prescribed format, valid for £ 5 months or till the Statement of compliance is issued by the Flag State, whichever is earlier.
  • The Flag State shall review the final report and prepare a Review Record.
  • Each of the above actions shall be completed within the prescribed time frame, prior to the anniversary date of the delivery of the tanker in the appropriate compliance year, as prescribed in the table in this Annex.
  • On satisfactory completion of the above actions, the Flag State shall issue a Statement of Compliance to the tanker in the prescribed format, valid for £ 5 ½ years, alongwith the final report of the RO and the review record of the State. On issue of this statement, the interim statement issued by the RO shall expire.
  • The Statement shall be in the official language of the Flag State, with a translation in English, French or Spanish. It shall be a supplement to the IOPP certificate.
  • A copy of the Statement and the review record of the State shall also be given to RO.
  • Till the Statement is issued, the tanker shall remain out of service after the appropriate compliance date prescribed in the table in the Annex.
  • The Flag State may declare the Statement as valid even if the tanker is subsequently transferred to another RO or another owner, provided that the period of validity and other conditions for issue of the Statement remains the same.
  • If the owner fails to obtain the Statement, and changes the flag of his tanker, then the new Flag State shall obtain the complete CAS documentation from the previous Flag State, and ensure that the earlier grounds of rejection are adequately dealt with before issuing the Statement to the tanker.
  • If the owner changes the flag of his tanker after obtaining the Statement, then the new Flag State shall obtain the complete CAS documentation from the previous Flag State, and may issue a new Statement to the tanker.
  • The Flag State shall send to IMO the particulars of the Statement issued and also the particulars of the tanker to which it has declined to issue the Statement.

 

Precautions when handling REEFER cargo

REEFER

redundant-refrigerated-container-w-back-up-power-supply-model-nmr-262nmg-115

 

  1. FROZEN CARGO: MEAT, BUTTER, POULTRY AND FISH. -8OC TO -12OC.
  2. CHILLED CARGO: CHEESE, EGGS AND FRESH VEGETABLES. -2 OC TO 6OC.
  3. AIR COOLED CARGO: FRUITS. 2 OC TO 12OC.

PREPARATION OF CARGO HOLD:

  1. THE COMPARTMENT MUST BE CLEAN, DRY AND FREE OF ANY ODOUR OR TAINT,
  2. HOLD MUST BE DEODORISED WITH MILD AGENTS (LIME, OZONE),
  3. BILGES TO BE CLEANED, DRY, DEODORISED AND SUCTIONS CHECKED,
  4. THE INSULATION AND PERMANENT DUNNAGE TO BE CHECKED AND REPAIRED AS NECESSARY,
  5. SCUPPERS TO BE CLEANED,
  6. BRINE TRAPS TO BE CHECKED, TESTED AND REFILLED,
  7. THERMOMETERS TO BE IN POSITION,
  8. VENTILATOR PLUGS IN POSITION AND TIGHTLY WEDGED,
  9. BRINE PIPES TO BE TESTED TO ENSURE THEY ARE NOT CHOCKED AND THAT NO LEAKS OCCUR AT THE JOINTS.

PRECOOLING OF THE COMPARTMENT:

  1. THE COMPARTMENT SHOULD BE COOLED DOWN PRIOR TO LOADING TO A TEMPERATURE SLIGHTLY LOWER THAN THE TRANSIT TEMPERATURE,
  2. DUNNAGE LAID IN THE COMPARTMENT SHOULD ALSO BE COOLED DOWN OTHERWISE IT WILL STAIN THE CARGO,

PRECAUTIONS DURING LOADING:

  1. REEFER CARGO SHOULD BE LOADED ONBOARD ONLY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF A RECOGNIZED SURVEYOR,
  2.  CARGO SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO WAIT FOR LONG TIME ON THE QUAY,
  3. HOLD SHOULD BE PRE-COOLED TO TEMP BELOW THE CARRIAGE TEMP,
  4. DAMP, WET AND TORN PACKAGES SHOULD BE INSPECTED IF THE CARGO HAS DETERIORATED. IF THE CARGO IS FINE THEN ONLY IT SHOULD BE LOADED AFTER RE-PACKING,
  5. CONTENTS OF AT LEAST 5-10% CARTONS SHOULD BE EXAMINED FROM EACH HOLD ON A RANDOM BASIS,
  6. CARTONS WITH SOFT OR DRIPPING CONTENTS SHOULD BE REJECTED,
  7. REFRIGERATION OF HOLDS SHOULD BE TURNED ON DURING LONG BREAKS AND DURING MEAL BREAKS,
  8. ONCE LOADED, THE CARGO SHOULD BE COVERED WITH TARPAULIN,
  9. DURING OPERATIONS, THE FROST FORMED ON TOP OF THE BRIPE PIPES SHOULD BE BRUSHED CAREFULLY. IT SHOULD NOT FALL ON TOP OF THE CARGO.
  10. IN TROPICAL CLIMATES AVOID LOADING IN THE NOON. TRY TO LOAD CARGO DURING NIGHT TIME,
  11. UPON COMPLETION OF LOADING, THE REEFER CHAMBER MUST BE CLOSED AIR TIGHT AND COOLING RESUMED IMMEDIATELY.

PRECAUTIONS DURING LOADING

  1. CARGO MUST BE STOWED IN ORDER TO ALLOW FREE CIRCULATION OF AIR THROUGH AND AROUND THE STOW.
  2. LAYING OF DUNNAGE SHOULD BE SUCH THAT IT DOES NOT OBSTRUCT DESIGNED AIR FLOW PATTERN IN THE COMPARTMENT,
  3. SIDES AND BULKHEADS SHOULD BE FITTED WITH VERTICAL DUNNAGE TO KEEP CARGO AWAY FROM THE STRUCTURE,
  4. REEFER CHAMBERS MUST BE DIVIDED WITH AIR CHANNELS FOR EACH BLOCK NOT EXCEEDING 3 MTRS. CHANNEL MUST BE ATLEAST 10CMS WIDE AND ALIGNED TO FACE THE COOL AIR OUTLETS. THERE SHOULD BE AN EVEN GAP OF ATLEAST 30 CMS BETWEEN THE CARGO TOP AND THE LOWEST PART OF THE DECKHEAD.
  5. DUNNAGING SHOULD BE EFFICIENTLY CARRIED OUT SO AS TO AVOID STOW COLLAPSING INTO THE AIR CHANNELS,

EACH LOT OF CARGO TO BE LOADED ACCORDING TO THE B/Ls AND SEPARATED BY USING COLOUR TAPES OR NET. AVOID LOADING CARGO FOR MORE THAN 1 PORT IN ONE CHAMBER. CARGO ONCE LOADED SHOULD NOT BE SHIFTED. THESE MEASURES WILL HELP PREVENT TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATIONS.

 

 

 

 

Precautions when loading HEAVY LIFT by ship’s gear.

shipmates-heavy lift-own crane

 

  1. SWL: THE SWL OF THE SHIP’S GEAR SHOULD BE MORE THAN THE WEIGHT OF THE CARGO, TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION THE WEIGHT OF THE RIGGING GEAR TO BE USED.
  2. STOWAGE LOCATION: THE CARGO SHOULD PREFERABLY BE LOADED ON DECK. IF LOADED UNDER DECK THE SPACE IS LOST AS CARGO CANNOT BE LOADED ON TOP OF THE HEAVY LIFT, ALSO THE HEAVY LIFT CANNOT BE LOADED ON TOP OF ANY OTHER CARGO. ON TWEEN DECK, THERE IS A HEIGHT RESTRICTION SO IT CANNOT BE LOADED ON TWEEN DECK. SPECIAL ATTENTION SHOULD BE GIVEN FOR LOAD DENSITY WHEN THE CARGO IS LOADED ON DECK, IF REQUIRED EXTRA STRENGTHENING SHOULD BE PROVIDED FROM BELOW THE TWEEN DECK IN THE FORM OF PROPS MADE OF 4×4 OR 6×6 HARD WOOD.
  3. STABILITY: CALCULATE THE STABILITY FOR THE WORST CONDITION, i.e. WHEN THE CARGO IS JUST LIFTED FROM THE WHARF AS AT THAT TIME IT IS FURTHEST AWAY FROM CENTRE LINE. ALSO THE STBILITY SHOULD BE CALCULATED FOR THE ENTIRE OPERATION.
  4. ENGINE DEPARTMENT: THE ENGINE DEPARTMENT SHOULD BE INFORMED ABOUT THIS AS THEY WILL CHECK IF THEY WILL BE ABLE TO GIVE MAXIMUM POWER FOR THE OPERATION.
  5. PROPER DUNNAGE REQUIREMENTS
  6. PROPER SECURING MATERIAL AVAILABLE AS PER THE CARGO SECURING MANUAL.
  7. AMPLE FIXED SECURING POINT (EYEPADS) AVAILABLE ON DECK.
  8. OVERHAULING OF ALL MECHANICAL AND MOVABLE PARTS.
  9. GREASING AND LUBRICATION OF ALL MOVING PARTS AND INSPECTION OF THE WIRE ROPE/SHEAVES FOR ANY DAMAGE/WEAR N TEAR.
  10. WIRE ROPES SHOULD BE PROPERLY REEVED ON THE DRUMS.
  11. WINCH SHOULD BE ON SLOW GEAR.
  12. LIMIT SWITCHES SHOULD BE TESTED.
  13. ENTRIES IN THE CHAIN REGISTER (IF ANY SURVEYS ARE DUE OR IF THERE IS ANY C.O.C.)
  14. THE APPLIANCE SHOULD BE RIGGED AS PER THE APPROVED RIGGING PLAN.
  15. THE CARGO SHOULD BE PHYSICALLY CHECKED PRIOR TO LOADING (NUMBER OF RESTING POINT, LIFTING POINTS, ACTUAL WEIGHT OF THE CARGO, IF ONE END IS HEAVIER SO AS TO ADJUST THE LENGTH OF THE WIRE SLINGS IN ORDER TO LIFT THE CARGO HORIZONTALLY).
  16. A MEETING SHOULD BE HELD WITH THE SHIP’S CREW BRIEFING THEM ABOUT THE ENTIRE OPERATION.
  17. CREW MEMEBERS SHOULD BE STATIONED FWD AND AFT TO ATTEND TO THE MOORING LINES.
  18. GANGWAY TO BE LIFTED OFF THE WHARF TO AVOID ANY DAMAGE IN CASE OF ANY HEAVY LIST.
  19. ALL BUNKERING AND DOUBLE BANKING OPERATIONS TO BE STOPPED.
  20. THERE SHOULD BE NO BARGES/BOATS ALONGSIDE.
  21. STOP ALL OTHER CARGO OPERATIONS.
  22. SECURE ALL OTHER CARGO ONBOARD.
  23. UN-AUTHORISED PERSONS SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED ONBOARD.
  24. WINCH OPERATOR AND SIGNALMAN TO BE EFFICIENT IN THERE JOB.
  25. ONE PERSON TO BE STANDBY TO CORRECT THE LIST.
  26. PREFERABLY THE OPERATION SHOULD BE DONE DURING DAY LIGHT BUT IF AT NIGHT, PROPER ILLUMINATION SHOULD BE IN PLACE.
  27. DISCUSS THE PLAN WITH STEVEDORS AND FOREMAN.
  28. FIX STEADYING LINES.
  29. LIFT CARGO OFF THE WHARF AND STOP TO CHECK IF EVERYTHING IS SATISFACTORY. CARRY OUT THOROUGH VISUAL INSPECTION OF THE LIFTING GEAR.
  30. IF EVERYTHING IS SATISFACTORY LIFT AND LOAD THE CARGO.

 

 

Overview of IMDG Code

shipmates-IMDG-Code

 

THE PURPOSE OF THIS CODE IS TO FACILITATE SAFE TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS AND AT THE SAME TIME TO ALLOW FOR THEIR UNRESTRICTED MOVEMENT.

THIS CODE IS THERE TO COMPLY WITH SOLAS CH 7, PART 8 AND MARPOL ANNEX III.

 

THE CODE HAS 2 VOLUMES AND 1 SUPPLEMENT.

 

VOLUME 1: CONSISTS OF PART 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 AND 7.

PART 1 – GENERAL DEFINITIONS, PROVISIONS AND TRAINING,

PART 2 – CLASSIFICATION,

PART 4 – PACKING AND TANK PROVISIONS,

PART 5 – CONSIGNMENT PROCEDURE,

PART 6 – CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF PACKAGING, INTERMEDIATE BULK

CONTAINER, LARGE PACKAGINGS ETC,

PART 7 – PROVISIONS CONCERNING TRANSPORT OPERATIONS.

 

VOLUME 2: CONSISTS OF PART 3

 

3.1 – GENERAL

3.2 – DANGEROUS GOODS LIST

3.3 – SPECIAL PROVISIONS

3.4 – LIMITED QUANTITIES

 

DANGEROUS GOODS LIST CONSISTS OF 18 COLUMNS:

1. U.N. No.

2. PROPER SHIPPING NAME,

3. CLASS,

4. SUBSIDIARY RISK,

5. PACKING GROUP,

6. SPECIAL PROVISIONS,

7. LIMITED QUANTITY,

8 & 9. PACKING REQUIREMENTS

10 & 11. IBC (INTERMEDIATE BULK CONTAINER

12, 13 & 14. TANK INSTRUCTIONS,

15. EmS

16. STOWAGE AND SEGREGATION,

17. PROPERTIES AND OBSERVATIONS,

18. UN No.

 

COLUMN NUMBER 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17 ARE IMPORTANT FOR US TO KNOW.

 

SUBSIDIARY RISK: MEANS ANY OTHER RISK WHICH THE CARGO MAY POSSES OTHER THAN THE ONE SPECIFIED BY ITS CLASS. IT IS A SECONDARY RISK. IF A CARGO HAS TWO RISKS INVOLVED, THEN IT SHOULD BE MARKED WITH 2 LABELS STATING BOTH THE RISKS. IF A PACKAGE HAS MORE THAN ONE CLASS OF DANGEROUS GOODS INSIDE IT, THEN IT SHOULD BE MARKED WITH BOTH THE CLASSES.

 

shipmates_imdg_code

 

 

STOWAGE CATEGORY: STATED IN VOL 1, PART 7.1.

CLASS 1 HAS 15 CATEGORIES

CLASS 2-9 HAS 5 CATEGORIES (A~E).

THIS WILL DECIDE WHERE THE CARGO HAS TO BE STOWED, ON DECK OR UNDER DECK.

 

SEGREGATION: STATED IN VOL 1, PART 7.2

THIS SECTION HAS TABLES FOR FOLLOWING:

  1. SEGREGATION FOR DANGEROUS GOODS CARRIED IN PACKAGED FORM: THIS IS GIVEN IN THE FORM OF A TABLE. STATING THE TYPE OF SEGREGATION REQUIRED BETWEEN CLASSES OF CARGO, EXCLUDING CLASS 1, WHICH HAS AN ALTOGETHER SEPARATE TABLE. THE TERMS USED FOR SEGREGATION ARE:
    1. AWAY FROM: MAY BE CARRIED IN THE SAME COMPARTMENT OR ON DECK PROVIDED A MINIMUM HORIZONTAL SEPARATION OF 3M PROJECTED VERTICALLY IS MAINTAINED.
    2. SEPARATED FROM: CAN BE CARRIED IN THE SAME COMPARTMENT IF THE INTERVENING DECK IS RESISTANT TO FIRE AND LIQUIDS OTHERWISE IN SEPARATE HOLDS. ON DECK A MINIMUM HORIZONTAL SEPARATION OF 6 METERS.
    3. SEPARATED BY A COMPLETE COMPARTMENT FROM: THERE MUST BE EITHER A VERTICAL OR LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION BY A COMPLETE COMPARTMENT OR HOLD, AND TWO BULKHEADS WHICH ARE RESISTANT TO FIRE AND LIQUIDS. FOR ON DECK, A HORIZONTAL SEPARATION OF AT LEAST 12 METRES EVEN IF THE PACKAGE IS STOWED UNDER DECK.
    4. SEPARATED LONGITUDINALLY BY A COMPLETE COMPARTMENT OR HOLD FROM: A VERTICAL SEPARATION IS NOT ALLOWED, THE PACKAGE MUST BE HORIZONTALLY SEPARATED BY A COMPLETE COMPARTMENT. ON DECK A HORIZONTAL SEPARATION OF 24 METERS IS REQUIRED. BETWEEN ON DECK AND UNDER DECK CARGO A HORIZONTAL SEPARATION OF 24 METERS + INTERVENING COMPARTMENT.
  2. FOR CONTAINERS THE TABLE IS THE SAME AS ABOVE BUT THE MEANING OF THE ABOVE SEGREGATION TERMS IS DIFFERENT.
  3. FOR HATCH COVERLESS TYPE CONTAINER VESSEL, THE TABLE IS AGAIN THE SAME BUT THE MEANINGS OF THE ABOVE SEGRETATION TERMS IS DIFFERENT.
  4. THERE IS A SEPARATE TABLE FOR RO-RO VESSEL.
  5. SEPARATE TABLE FOR SEGREGATION BETWEEN CARGO IN BULK AND CARGO IN PACKAGED FORM.
  6. SEGREGATION TABLE FOR CLASS 1 CARGO WHICH IS BY COMPATIBILITY CODES. WHICH ARE A TO L, N AND S.

 

IMDG SUPPLEMENT: CONSISTS OF

 

    1. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES (EmS)
    2. MEDICAL FIRST AID GUIDE,
    3. REPORTING PROCEDURES,
    4. PACKING CARGO TRANSPORT UNIT,
    5. USE OF PESTICIDES ON SHIP,
    6. INF CODE

AND APPENDIX

 

  1. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES (Ems): GUIDELINES TO BE FOLLOWED IN CASE OF A DANGEROUS CARGO EMERGENCY (FIRE AND SPILLAGE). IN THE D.G. LIST COLUMN 15, IT IS STATED AS FA, SA IN FRONT OF A PARTICAL DANGEROUS CARGO, WHICH MEANS IN CASE OF A FIRE TABLE NO FA HAS TO BE FOLLOWED AND IN CASE OF SPILLAGE TABLE NO SA TO BE FOLLOWED. IF IT IS UNDERLINED IT MEANS THE CARGO HAS SOME SPECIAL RISK WHICH IS STATED SEPARATELY IN THE RESPECTIVE TABLE INFRONT OF THE SPECIFIC UN No.

FOR FIRE THERE ARE 10 TABLE (FA ~ FJ)

FOR SPILL THERE ARE 26 TABLES (SA ~ SZ).

 

  1. MEDICAL FIRST AID GUIDE: THIS PART OF THE SUPPLEMENT WITH THE MEDICAL FIRST AID TO BE GIVEN TO A PERSON WHO HAS COME IN CONTACT WITH THE DANGEROUS CARGO EITHER BY INHALATION, INJESTION, SKIN CONTACT, EYE CONTACT ETC. THIS IS IN THE FORM OF A TABLE (QUESTANAIRE), ASKING VARIOUS QUESTIONS ABOUT THE MEDICAL EMERGENCY. THE RESPECTIVE TABLE IN THE FLOWCHART HAS TO BE REFFERED. IN ANY CASE THE COMPLETE FLOWCHART HAS TO BE COMPLETED FOR ANY MEDICAL EMERGENCY.
  2. REPORTING PROCEDURES: REPORTINGS SUCH AS AMVER, AUSREP, MAREP, JASREP WHICH CONTAINS ITEMS FROM A~Z. IT HAS GOT VARIOUS REPORT SUCH AS DANGEROUS GOODS REPORT, MARINE POLLUTANT REPORT ETC. WHICH STATES THE ITEMS FROM A~Z WHICH HAVE TO BE SENT.
  3. DANGEROUS CARGO MANIFEST: IT IS A MANIFEST PREPARED BY THE VESSEL OR THE OWNER’S AGENT ON BEHALF OF THE VESSEL, FOR CUSTOM PURPOSES.

 

THIS MANIFEST GIVES DETAILS LIKE:

  • NAME OF THE SHIP,
  • IMO NUMBER,
  • NATINALITY OF THE SHIP,
  • MASTER’S NAME,
  • VOYAGE NUMBER,
  • PORT OF LOADING,
  • PORT OF DISCHARGE,
  • AGENT’S NAME.
  • DETAILS OF THE DANGEROUS GOODS ONBOARD:
  •             BOOKING REFERANCE NUMBER,
  •             MARKS AND NUMBER OR CONTAINER NUMBER,
  •             NUMBER AND KIND OF PACKAGES,
  •             CLASS OF CARGO,
  •             UN NO,
  • PACKAGING GROUP,
  • SUBSIDIARY RISK,
  • FLASHPOINT,
  • MARINE POLLUTANT,
  • WEIGHT OF THE CARGO,
  • EMS,
  • STOWAGE POSITION.
  • AGENT’S SIGNATURE AND MASTER’S SIGNATURE WITH PLACE AND DATE.

A VESSEL SHOULD ALSO HAVE A SHIPPER’S DECLARATION FOR EVERY PACKAGE THAT THE CARGO HAS BEEN PACKED, MARKED, LABELLED AND PLACARDED PROPERLY WITH THE REQUIREMENTS. GENERALLY THIS CERTIFICATE IS GIVEN TO THE SHIPPER BY THE PACKING AGENCY.

 

MAGAZINE STOWAGE FOR EXPLOSIVES:

MAGAZINE IS THE NAME GIVEN TO THE ENCLOSURE DESIGNED TO PROTECT CARGO FROM DAMAGE BY ANY OTHER CARGO DURING LOADING AND UNLOADING, AGAINST ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS AND TO PREVENT UNAUTHORISED ACCESS. A MAGAZINE MAY BE A FIXED STRUCTURE ON SHIP, A CLOSED FREIGHT CONTAINER, THE LOADED COMPARTMENT OF A FREIGHT CONTAINER OR A PORTABLE MAGAZINE.

 

  1. MAGAZINE A: IT IS BASICALLY FOR THOSE SUBSTANCES WHICH HAVE TO BE KEPT CLEAR OF SHIP’S STEELWORK. THIS SORT OF MAGAZINE SPECIALLY GUARDS AGAINST FRICTION BETWEEN CARGO AND STEELWORK. THE INNER SIDES AND FLOOR SHOULD BE CLOSE BOARDED WITH WOOD. THE ROOF NEED NOT BE FLATTENED BUT SHOULD BE FREE OF LOOSE RUST AND SCALES. THE CARGO MUST BE AT A MINIMUM DEPTH OF 300mm FROM THE DECKHEAD.
  2. MAGAZINE C: A CLOSED CARGO UNIT PLACED AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE CENTRELINE OF THE SHIP. IF NOT THEN AT A DISTANCE B/8 OR 2.4 METERS, WHICHEVER IS LESS, FROM THE SHIP SIDE.
  3. SPECIAL: THE GOODS MUST BE STOWED AS FAR AS POSSIBLE AWAY FROM THE LIVING QUARTERS OF THE CREW. GENERALLY GIVEN THE TOP MOST STOWAGE.

 

PRECAUTIONS WHEN LOADING / UNLOADING DANGEROUS GOODS

  1. DOCUMENTATION IN ORDER (SHIPPER’S DECLARATION, CONTAINER PACKING CERTIFICATE, EMERGENCY INFORMATION) EMERGENCY INFORMATION),
  2.  ALL CARGO OPERATIONS SUPPORTED BY A RESPONSIBLE OFFICER WHO SHOULD BE IN POSSESION OF OPERATIONAL AND EMERGENCY INFORMATION (INCLUDING STABILITY INFORMATION),
  3. NO INTOXICATED PERSON TO BE ALLOWED CHARGE OF OPERATION,
  4. NO UNAUTHORIZED PERSON ALLOWEN IN VICINITY OF CARGO BEING HANDLED,
  5. COMPARTMENT DRY AND SUITABLE FOR CARGO,
  6. CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENT CHECKED BEFORE USE,
  7. NO CARGO HANDLING UNDER ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS,
  8. PACKAGING AND SEGREGATION AS PER IMDG CODE,
  9. ALL CARGO PROPERLY LABELLED, NO LABELS DEFACED OR REMOVED,
  10. CARGO HANDLED CAREFULLY, HANDLING KEPT TO MINIMUM,
  11. TANKS NOT OVERFILLED,
  12. PORT AUTHORITY INFORMED,
  13. FIRE WIRES RIGGED AS NECESSARY,
  14. EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE FOR FIRE / SPILLAGE,
  15. SUITABLE PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE AND EXPLOSION,
  16. PACKAGES TO BE STOWED AS PLANNED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE IMDG CODE,
  17. CARGO SPACE TO BE PROPERLY VENTILATED,
  18. ‘B’ FLAG DISPLAYED,
  19. THERE IS A SAFE ACCESS TO THE PACKAGES, SO THAT IN CASE OF FIRE THEY CAN BE REMOVED,
  20. ELECTRICAL FITTING IN GOOD CONDITION.
  21. THE PACKAGE IS PROPERLY LABELLED / MARKED AND PLACARDED.
  22. IF CARGO IN DRUMS, THEY SHOULD BE STOWED VERTICALLY,
  23. THE CARGO SHOULD BE PLACED IN SUCH A MANNER THAT THERE IS SAFE AND CLEAR ACCESS TO ALL LSA / FFA,
  24. PACKAGES SHOULD BE STOWED AWAY FROM SUNLIGHT OR OTHER HEAT SOURCES,
  25. NO CARGO SHOULD BE STOWED ON TOP OF PORTABLE TANKS,
  26. DG’S WITH GIVE OF VAPOUR TO BE STOWED ON DECK OR IN MECHANICALLY VENTILATED SPACES,
  27. CARGO SECURING MANUAL TO BE COMPLIED WITH,
  28. SEGREGATION AS PER THE IMDG CODE.

 

FUMIGATION onboard ships

INSECTS AND RODENTS ARE NOT ONLY A NUISANCE ON VESSELS BUT THEY ALSO CAUSE HARM BY SPREADING DISEASE AND INFECTION. THEY MAY CONTAMINATE FOOD AND STORAGE AND PREPARATION AND CAUSE DAMAGE TO CARGOES, RESULTING IN COMMERCIAL LOSSES. RODENTS ARE TO BE CONTROLLED TO PREVENT SPREAD OF DISEASE. FUMIGATION IS USED TO CONTROL INSECTS, PESTS AND RODENTS.

 

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHILE FUMIGATING A SHIP:

 shipmates-fumigation-warning

FUMIGATION IN PORT

  1. THE FUMIGATION, VENTILATION AND DISPERSION OF GAS SHOULD BE COMPLETED IN PORT,
  2. BEFORE FUMIGATION THE HATCHES ARE TO BE CHECKED THAT THEY CAN BE MADE GAS TIGHT, SPECIAL ATTENTION IS TO BE MADE TO BE PAID TO BILGES AND CARGO LINES,
  3. NO ONE IS TO BE ALLOWED ONBOARD UNTIL THE SHIP IS CERTIFIED GAS FREE BY THE FUMIGATOR INCHARGE AND TESTING AND MONITORING IS CARRIED OUT TO ENSURE CONCENTRATION AND TLV IS NOT EXCEEDED,
  4. IF CREW ARE REQUIRED IN OPENING/CLOSING OF HATCHES THEY MUST BE PROVIDED WITH RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND IF REQUIRED TO LIVE ONBOARD, THEIR ACCOMODATION MUST BE CERTIFIED GAS-FREE BY THE FUMIGATORS.

 

shipmates-fumigation 

FUMIGATION IN TRANSIT

  1. THE SHIP SHOULD CARRY GAS DETECTION EQUIPMENTS, 4 SETS OF PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS, A COPY OF MFAG, NECESSARY MEDICINES AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR DISPOSAL OF RESIDUAL FUMIGANT MATERIAL,
  2. AFTER FUMIGATION A CHECK OF THE ACCOMODATION, ENGINE ROOM AND OTHER WORKING SPACES MUST BE DONE YO ENSURE THAT THEY ARE FREE FROM HARMFUL CONCENTRATIONS OF GAS,
  3. THE SAILING OF THE SHIP IS TO BE DELAYED OR THE FUMIGATOR KEPT ONBOARD FOR A PERIOD TO ALLOW THE GAS TO REACH A HIGH CONCENTRATION INSIDE THE HOLD SO THAT IT IS POSSIBLE TO DETECT ANY LEAKAGE,
  4. GAS DETECTION EQUIPMENT AND TEST KITS SHOULD BE SUPPLIED WITH INSTRUCTIONS FOR USAGE,
  5. GAS MONITORING IN APPROPRIATE LOCATIONS SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT AT 8 HOUR INTERVALS AND THE READING ENTERED IN THE SHIP’S LOGBOOK,
  6. THE SEALED HOLD SHOULD NEVER BE OPENED AT SEA. ENTRY INTO THE HOLD OF THE SHIP UNDER FUMIGATION SHOULD BE ALLOWED ONLY IN EMERGENCY AND WITH PROPER SAFETY EQUIPMENTS,,
  7. ATLEAST 24 HOURS NOTICE TO BE GIVEN TO PORT AUTHORITIES PRIOR ARRIVAL OF A SHIP WITH FUMIGATION-IN-TRANSIT. MONITORING TO BE CARRIED OUT, AND THE READINGS ENTERED IN THE LOG BOOK,
  8. ONLY MECHANICAL DISCHARGE IS PERMITTED IN A FUMIGATED HOLD AND WHEN THE HOLDS ARE COMPLETELY GAS FREE AFTER DISCHARGE, ALL WARNING NOTICES MUST BE REMOVED AND THE FACT ENTERED IN THE LOG BOOK,
  9. REMEMBER PESTICIDES ARE POISONOUS TO HUMANS AND PESTS. SO READ INSTRUCTION PROPERLY AND FOLLOW THEM, ESPECIALLY THOSE RELATING TO SAFETY,
  10. NEVER STOW PESTICIDES IN ACCOMODATION, GALLEY OR FOOD STORES,
  11. NEVER EAT OR SMOKE WHILE USING PESTICIDES,
  12. NEVER RE-USE EMPTY CONTAINERS,
  13. WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING GLOVES, RESPIRATORS, GOGGLES ETC AND DO NOT REMOVE THESE UNDER HOT AND HUMID CONDITIONS. IF CLOTHING IS CONTAINED, STOP WORK LEAVE THE AREA, REMOVE CLOTHING, TAKE A SHOWER AND WASH SKIN PROPERLY AND WASH CLOTHING,
  14. WHEN SPRAYING IS CARRIED OUT BY SHORE OPERATORS, THEIR INSTRUCTIONS MUST BE STRICTLY FOLLOWED AND NO ONE SHOULD ENTER THE FUMIGATED AREA UNTIL IT IS SAFE TO DO SO.